Trading Jerusalem: Jewish-Arab Encounters in a Middle Eastern Restaurant in Toronto
AbstractThis ethnographic study explores everyday encounters between Jewish Israeli immigrants, Palestinian Arab immigrants, and Canadian Jews in Jerusalem Restaurant a Middle Eastern dining establishment in Toronto. The article reveals the waysin which these three subgroups relate to each other economically and culturally in the context of a diasporic food business that bases its appeal on the symbolism of Jerusalem. Through the practices and relationships observed in this restaurant, we suggest that these subgroups create a practical foodway community, while each subgroup associates with the notion of Jerusalem in its own distinctive way.
Andrea D’Sylva and Brenda Beagan, ‘Food is culture, but it’s also power’: The role of food in ethnic and gender identity construction among Goan Canadian women, Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 3 (2011): 279-289. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09589236.2011.593326
Anne Kershner, Introduction: Food in the migrant experience. In Food in Migrant experience, edited by A. Kershner, 1-13 (Hampshire: Ashgate, 2002).
Anuradha Basu, ‘Immigrant entrepreneurs in the food sector: Breaking the Mould’ In Food in the migrant experience, edited by A. Kershen, 149-171, (Hampshire: Ashgate, 2002).
Aviad Kleinberg, ed., A full belly: Rethinking food and society in Israel (Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University Press and Keter Press,2005[in Hebrew]).
Benedict Anderson’s “imagined communities” in Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism (London: Verso, 1983).
Carlos Teixeira, Lucia Lo, and Marie Truelove, Immigrant entrepreneurship, institutional discrimination, and implications for public policy: a case study in Toronto. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 25, no. 2 (2007): 176-193. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1068/c18r
Daniel Hiebert and Ravi Pendakur, Who’s cooking? The changing ethnic division of labour in Canada 1971-1996 (Vancouver: RIIM working paper, 2003).
David Ley, Explaining variations in business performance among immigrant entrepreneurs in Canada, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 32, no. 5 (2006): 743-64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830600704123
Dorothy Duncan, Canadians at table: Food, fellowship, and folklore: A culinary history of Canada (Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2006).
Edward Said’s thoughts on this subject in Orientalism: Western representations of the Orient (New York: Pantheon, 1979).
Elizabeth Mavroudi,’ Learning to be Palestinian in Athens: Constructing national identities in diaspora. Global Networks 7, no. 4 (2007): 392–411. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0374.2007.00176.x
Erez Cohen, “We are staying in our country - here’: Israeli mediascapes in Melbourne”, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 34, no. 6 (2008): 1003-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830802211307
Gerald Gold, ‘Israeli immigrants and “Canadian Jews” in Toronto’ in Essays in the social scientific study of Judaism and Jewish society, vol. II., edited by S. Fishbane, S. Schoenfeld and A. Goldschlager (Hoboken, NJ: Ktav, 1992).
Gerald Tulchinsky’s Canada’s Jews: A people’s journey (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3138/9781442687486
Habib, Jasmin. Israel, diaspora, and the routes of national belonging. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3138/9781442676329
Harry Herman, ‘Dishwashers and proprietors: Macedonians in Toronto’s restaurant trade’ in Ethnicity at Work, edited by S. Wallman, 71-90 (London: Macmillan press, 1979). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-16044-0_4
Hasia Diner, Hungering for America: Italians, Irish, and Jewish foodways in the age of migration (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001).
Helena Lindholm Schulz, The Palestinian diaspora: Formation of identities and politics of homeland, 74-80 (London: Routledge, 2003):74-80.
Kelly Train “Carving out a space of one’s own: The Sephardic Kehila Centre and the Toronto Jewish Community” in Teelucksingh, Cheryl (ed). Claiming space: Racialization in Canadian cities, (Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press, 2006): 41-64.
Kenneth Waled, ‘Homeland interests, hostland politics: Politicized Ethnic identity among Middle Eastern heritage groups in the United States. The International Migration Review 42, no. 2 (2008): 273-301. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2008.00125.x
Leonard Saxe and Matthew Boxer “Loyalty and love of Israel by diasporan Jews”, Israel Studies 17 no 2 (2012): 92-101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2979/israelstudies.17.2.92
Linda Brown and Kay Mussell, Ethnic and regional foodways in the United States: The performance of group identity, 3-15 (Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1984).
Liora Gvion, Culinary bridges versus culinary barriers: Social and political aspects of Palestinian cookery in Israel (Jerusalem: Carmel, 2006 [in Hebrew]).
Liora Gvion, “Hummus – Kuskus – Sushi: food and ethnicity in the Israeli society”, in A full belly: Rethinking food and society in Israel, edited by A. Kleinberg, 32-78 (Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University Press and Keter Press, 2005 [in Hebrew]).
Mohamed Kamel Dorai’, The meaning of homeland for the Palestinian diaspora: Revival and transformation’ In New approaches to migration? Transnational communities and the transformation of home, edited by N. Al Ali and K. Koser, 87-95 (London: Routledge, 2002).
Mohammad Qadeer, Sandeep K. Agrawal, and Alexander Lovell, ‘Evolution of ethnic enclaves in the Toronto Metropolitan Area, 2001–2006’, Journal of International Migration and Integration 11, no. 3 (2010): 315-339. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12134-010-0142-8
Mustafa Mohammad, The Palestinian diaspora. Ramallah: Arab Economist Association, 1997).
Ofra Tene, ‘That’s how we cook home in Israel’ in A full belly: Rethinking food and society in Israel, edited by A. Kleinberg, 92-130, (Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University Press and Keter Press, 2005 [in Hebrew]).
Orit Rozin, ”Food, identity, nationalism and nation building in Israeli formation years” Israel Studies Forum 21, no 1 (2006): 52-80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3167/106577106780680873
Ram Monder et al., ‘Ethnic minority business in comparative perspective: The case of the independent restaurant sector, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 26, no. 3 (2000): 495-416. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/713680492
Reza Aslan and Aaron J. Hahn Tapper, Muslims and Jews in America: Commonalities, contentions and complexities (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230119048
Rina Cohen and Gerald Gold ‘Israelis in Toronto: The myth of return and the development of a distinct ethnic community’, Jewish Journal of Sociology 38, no. 1 (1996): 17-26.
Rina Cohen, “The Israeli diaspora”, in Encyclopedia of diasporas, immigrant and refugee cultures around the world, edited by I. Skoggard (New Haven: Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, 2005).
Robin Cohen, Global Diasporas: An introduction (New York: Routledge, 1997). DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203228920
Sami Smooha, “Arab-Jewish relations in Israel: A deeply divided society” in Israeli Identity in Transition, edited by A. Shapira, 31-68. (London: Praeger. 2004).
Shalom Staub, “The Near East Restaurant: A study of the spatial manifestation of the folklore of ethnicity”, New York Folklore 7, no. 1-2 (1981):113-27.
Shaun Tanaka, ‘Consuming the “oriental other”, constructing the cosmopolitan Canadian: Reinterpreting Japanese culinary culture in Toronto’s Japanese restaurants’, paper presented at the Canadian Association for Food Studies annual conference (2006), York University, Toronto.
Steven Gold, The Israeli diaspora, 91 (London: Routledge, 2002).
Susan Kalcik, ‘Ethnic foodways in America: symbol and performance of identity’, in Ethnic and Regional foodways in the United States: The Performance of group Identity, edited by L. Brown and K. Mussell, (Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1984), 37-65.
Weinfeld et al., “Overview of Canadian Jewry” in Arnold Dashkefsky and Ira Sheskin (eds.) American Jewish Year Book (Springer, Dordrecht, 2013): 55-90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5204-7_2
Yael Raviv, Falafel Nation: Cuisine and the making of national identity in Israel (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt1d989k8
Yinon Cohen and Andrea Tyree, “ Palestinians and Jewish Israeli-born in the United States”, The International Migration Review 28, no. 2 (1994): 243-55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/019791839402800201
Yinon Cohen, Economic assimilation in the US of Arab and Jewish immigrants from Israel and the Territories’ Israel Studies 1, no. 2 (1996): 75-97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2979/ISR.19126.96.36.199
Canadian Jewish Studies/ Études juives canadiennes is a journal dedicated to the open exchange of information; therefore the author agrees that the work published in the journal be made available to the public under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. The publisher (Association for Canadian Jewish Studies / Association des Études juives canadiennes) recognizes the author's intellectual property rights. The author grants the publisher first serial publication rights and the non-exclusive right to mount, preserve and distribute the intellectual property. The journal is digitized and published on the open access website http://pi.library.yorku.ca/ojs/index.php/cjs/index.